Deadalus42 1 The initial projectile that contains the noise charge will inherit the ships velocity. Though after it exploded the field will stay in place. Oh I wish it was - but sadly not. Great suggestion, I'll check with the audio team for appropriate sound support :smile:. It will affect all kinds of missile gameplay. Having more reliance on the launch platform is one of the goals to achieve for the missile operator mode.

But it's a bit too early to talk about that yet. She invested in several large industries. She became so popular that a whole industry grew up around her and her image.

First Known Use of industry 15th century, in the meaning defined at sense 2. Learn More about industry. Time Traveler for industry The first known use of industry was in the 15th century See more words from the same century. Dictionary Entries near industry industrial-strength industrial union industrious industry indwell indwelling Indy car See More Nearby Entries. Phrases Related to industry captain of industry heavy industry light industry service industry. More Definitions for industry.

English Language Learners Definition of industry. Kids Definition of industry. These link "the so-called two major phases of urbanisation in South Asia".

This site provides evidence of multiple social groups occupying the same village but using different pottery and living in different types of houses: "over time the Late Harappan pottery was gradually replaced by Painted Grey ware pottery," and other cultural changes indicated by archaeology include the introduction of the horse, iron tools, and new religious practices.

There is also a Harappan site called Rojdi in Rajkot district of Saurashtra. Its excavation started under an archaeological team from Gujarat State Department of Archaeology and the Museum of the University of Pennsylvania in — In their report on archaeological excavations at Rojdi, Gregory Possehl and M.

Raval write that although there are "obvious signs of cultural continuity" between the Harappan Civilisation and later South Asian cultures, many aspects of the Harappan "sociocultural system" and "integrated civilization" were "lost forever," while the Second Urbanisation of India beginning with the Northern Black Polished Ware culture, c.

Previously, scholars believed that the decline of the Harappan civilisation led to an interruption of urban life in the Indian subcontinent. However, the Indus Valley Civilisation did not disappear suddenly, and many elements of the Indus Civilisation appear in later cultures. The Cemetery H culture may be the manifestation of the Late Harappan over a large area in the region of Punjab , Haryana and western Uttar Pradesh , and the Ochre Coloured Pottery culture its successor.

David Gordon White cites three other mainstream scholars who "have emphatically demonstrated" that Vedic religion derives partially from the Indus Valley Civilisations. As of [update] , archaeological data suggests that the material culture classified as Late Harappan may have persisted until at least c. In the aftermath of the Indus Civilisation's localisation, regional cultures emerged, to varying degrees showing the influence of the Indus Civilisation. In the formerly great city of Harappa, burials have been found that correspond to a regional culture called the Cemetery H culture.

The Cemetery H culture has the earliest evidence for cremation ; a practice dominant in Hinduism today. The IVC has been compared in particular with the civilisations of Elam also in the context of the Elamo-Dravidian hypothesis and with Minoan Crete because of isolated cultural parallels such as the ubiquitous goddess worship and depictions of bull-leaping. Shahr-i-Sokhta , located in southeastern Iran shows trade route with Mesopotamia. After the discovery of the IVC in the s, it was immediately associated with the indigenous Dasyu inimical to the Rigvedic tribes in numerous hymns of the Rigveda.

Mortimer Wheeler interpreted the presence of many unburied corpses found in the top levels of Mohenjo-daro as the victims of a warlike conquest, and famously stated that " Indra stands accused" of the destruction of the IVC.

The association of the IVC with the city-dwelling Dasyus remains alluring because the assumed timeframe of the first Indo-Aryan migration into India corresponds neatly with the period of decline of the IVC seen in the archaeological record.

This move away from simplistic "invasionist" scenarios parallels similar developments in thinking about language transfer and population movement in general, such as in the case of the migration of the proto-Greek speakers into Greece, or the Indo-Europeanisation of Western Europe.

Proto-Munda or Para -Munda and a "lost phylum" perhaps related or ancestral to the Nihali language [] have been proposed as other candidates for the language of the IVC. Michael Witzel suggests an underlying, prefixing language that is similar to Austroasiatic , notably Khasi ; he argues that the Rigveda shows signs of this hypothetical Harappan influence in the earliest historic level, and Dravidian only in later levels, suggesting that speakers of Austroasiatic were the original inhabitants of Punjab and that the Indo-Aryans encountered speakers of Dravidian only in later times.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Redirected from Indus Valley Civilization. Bronze Age civilisation in South Asia. Banerji , to whom belongs the credit of having discovered, if not Mohenjo-daro itself, at any rate its high antiquity, and his immediate successors in the task of excavation, Messrs.

Vats and K. Palaeolithic 2,,—, BC. Madrasian Culture Soanian Culture. Neolithic 10,— BC. Chalcolithic — BC. Anarta tradition c. Bronze Age — BC. Iron Age — BC. Late medieval period — Early modern period — Colonial states — Periods of Sri Lanka. National histories. Regional histories. Specialised histories. Main article: Periodisation of the Indus Valley Civilisation. See also: Neolithic revolution. Mature Harappan. Archaeological remains of washroom drainage system at Lothal.

Dholavira in Gujarat, India , is one of the largest cities of Indus Valley Civilisation, with stepwell steps to reach the water level in artificially constructed reservoirs. See also: Pottery in the Indian subcontinent. Main article: Dancing Girl sculpture. Further information: Lothal and Meluhha. Main article: Indus script. Further information: Prehistoric religion.

See also: Vedic period and Indo-Aryan migration. See also: Bond event and 4. Main article: Iron Age India. Main article: Indus-Mesopotamia relations. Of the three, the Indus was the most expansive, extending from today's northeast Afghanistan to Pakistan and India. Water transport was crucial for the provisioning of these and other cities. That said, the vast majority of people lived in rural areas. Sir John Marshall, then Director General of the Archaeological Survey of India, used the term 'Indus civilization' for the culture discovered at Harappa and Mohenjo-daro, a term doubly apt because of the geographical context implied in the name 'Indus' and the presence of cities implied in the word 'civilization'.

Of these, only 97 have so far been excavated. During the Urban period, the early town of Harappa expanded in size and population and became a major center in the Upper Indus. Other cities emerging during the Urban period include Mohenjo-daro in the Lower Indus, Dholavira to the south on the western edge of peninsular India in Kutch, Ganweriwala in Cholistan, and a fifth city, Rakhigarhi, on the Ghaggar-Hakra. Rakhigarhi will be discussed briefly in view of the limited published material.

Others, notably the Archaeological Survey of India after Independence, have preferred to call it Harappan', or 'Mature Harappan', taking Harappa to be its type-site. Gupta "argued that Vedic elements such as the horse, fire altars and animal sacrifices had existed at the so-called 'Indus-Sarasvati' culture sites. She notes that the essential characteristics of Indus valley urbanism, such as planned cities, complex fortifications, elaborate drainage systems, the use of mud and fire bricks, monumental buildings, extensive craft activity, are completely absent in the Rigveda.

Similarly the Rigveda lacks a conceptual familiarity with key aspects of organised urban life e. Potential sources for this river include the Yamuna River, the Sutlej River, or both rivers. However, the lack of large-scale incision on the interfluve demonstrates that large, glacier-fed rivers did not flow across the Ghaggar-Hakra region during the Holocene.

The present Ghaggar-Hakra valley and its tributary rivers are currently dry or have seasonal flows. Yet rivers were undoubtedly active in this region during the Urban Harappan Phase. This widespread fluvial redistribution of sediment suggests that reliable monsoon rains were able to sustain perennial rivers earlier during the Holocene and explains why Harappan settlements flourished along the entire Ghaggar-Hakra system without access to a glacier-fed river. Were aspects of the mature Vedic cultures of the first millennium B.

Historians of the decline of the Harappan phase of the Indus Valley civilization such as Shereen Ratnagar have described the two as essentially disconnected, separated in both time and substance. There were very few of them. They also domesticated animals, including sheep, goats, pigs, and oxen both humped zebu [Bos indicus] and unhumped [Bos taurus].

Castrating oxen, for instance, turned them from mainly meat sources into domesticated draft-animals as well. Perhaps most importantly in a South Asian context, the role played by zebu makes this a distinctive, localised development, with a character completely different to other parts of the world.

Finally, the longevity of the site, and its articulation with the neighbouring site of Nausharo c. The transition to agriculture led to population growth and the eventual rise of the Indus civilization. With the movement to settled agriculture, and the emergence of villages, towns and cities, there was probably a modest rise in the average death rate and a slightly greater rise in the birth rate. Their largely cereal diet did not necessarily make people healthier, however, since conditions like caries and protein deficiencies can increase.

Further, infectious diseases spread faster with denser living conditions of both humans and domesticated animals which can spread measles, influenza, and other diseases to humans.

In contrast, the population of the Indus plains and adjacent regions lived mainly by hunting and gathering; the limited traces suggest their settlements were far fewer in number, and were small and widely scattered, though to some extent this apparent situation must reflect the difficulty of locating hunter-gatherer settlements. The presence of domestic animals in some hunter-gatherer settlements attests to contact with the people of the border-lands, probably in the context of pastoralists' seasonal movement from the hills into the plains.

The potential for population expansion in the hills was severely limited, and so, from the fourth millennium into the third, settlers moved out from the borderlands into the plains and beyond into Gujarat, the first being pastoralists, followed later by farmers. When I joined the camp I found it in front of the village and ruinous brick castle.

Behind us was a large circular mound, or eminence, and to the west was an irregular rocky height, crowned with the remains of buildings, in fragments of walls, with niches, after the eastern manner Tradition affirms the existence here of a city, so considerable that it extended to Chicha Watni, thirteen cosses distant, and that it was destroyed by a particular visitation of Providence, brought down by the lust and crimes of the sovereign.

There we have the whole sequence, right from the beginning of settled village life. There is good evidence for the local domestication of barley and the zebu cattle at Mehrgarh, [88] [89] but the wheat varieties are suggested to be of Near-Eastern origin, as the modern distribution of wild varieties of wheat is limited to Northern Levant and Southern Turkey.

Animal domestication in the Middle East: a revised view from the eastern margin. In: Possehl G, editor. Harappan civilization. The Bronze Age village and urban societies of the Indus Valley are some-thing of an anomaly, in that archaeologists have found little indication of local defense and regional warfare. It would seem that the bountiful monsoon rainfall of the Early to Mid-Holocene had forged a condition of plenty for all, and that competitive energies were channeled into commerce rather than conflict.

Scholars have long argued that these rains shaped the origins of the urban Harappan societies, which emerged from Neolithic villages around BC. It now appears that this rainfall began to slowly taper off in the third millennium, at just the point that the Harappan cities began to develop. Thus it seems that this "first urbanisation" in South Asia was the initial response of the Indus Valley peoples to the beginning of Late Holocene aridification.

These cities were maintained for to years and then gradually abandoned as the Harappan peoples resettled in scattered villages in the eastern range of their territories, into the Punjab and the Ganges Valley Compare with the very different interpretations in e Possehl, Gregory L. This wave has been postulated to have brought the Dravidian languages into India Renfrew It is hypothesized that the proto-Elamo-Dravidian language, most likely originated in the Elam province in southwestern Iran, spread eastwards with the movement of farmers to the Indus Valley and the Indian sub-continent.

This migration originated in what was historically termed Elam in south-west Iran to the Indus valley, and may have been associated with the spread of Dravidian languages from south-west Iran Quintan-Murci et al.

This migration originated in what was historically termed Elam in south-west Iran to the Indus valley, and may have been associated with the spread of Dravidian languages from south-west Iran. Using U-Pb dating of zircon sand grains they found that sediments typical of the Beas, Sutlej and Yamuna rivers Himalayan tributaries of the Indus are actually present in former Ghaggar-Hakra channels.

They also concluded that this contradicted the idea of a Harappan-time mighty "Sarasvati" river. Nishant Malik, Chaos Compare with the very different interpretations in Gregory L. Possehl Possehl, Gregory L. Outlook India. India: Oxford University Press. Societies, Networks, and Transitions. India: Cengage Learning.

New Delhi: Pearson Education. Robinson; Michael York Encyclopedia of Hinduism. Psychology Press. Early India. Penguin Books. Lothal and the Indus civilization. London: Asia Publishing House. Ancient Pakistan 5 : 1— In Possehl, Gregory L. Harappan Civilization: A recent perspective. New Delhi: Oxford University Press. Ghosh ed. Indian Archaeology, A Review — Delhi: Archaeol.

Cambridge University Press. In Maurizio Taddei ed. South Asian Archaeology Instituto Universitario Orientate. In Chatterjee Bhaskar ed. History and Archaeology. New Delhi: Ramanand Vidya Bhawan. Calcutta: Archaeological Survey of India. Modern Asian Studies. South Asia in World History. Oxford University Press. Immediately after the discovery of Harappan cities on the Indian side of the border, some nationalist-minded Indians began to speculate that the Ghaggar-Hakra riverbed may have more sites than neighboring Pakistan's Indus Valley.

Such claims may prove to be valid, but modern nationalist arguments complicate the task of South Asian archaeologists who must deal with the poor condition of Harappan sites. The high water table means the oldest sites are under water or waterlogged and difficult to access.

In Morrison, Kathleen D. Pearson Education India. Today, the count of Harappan sites has risen to about 1,, of which are in Pakistan and in India. New Delhi: Tulika Books. If in an ancient mound we find only one pot and two bead necklaces similar to those of Harappa and Mohenjo-daro, with the bulk of pottery, tools and ornaments of a different type altogether, we cannot call that site Harappan. It is instead a site with Harappan contacts. Where the Sarasvati valley sites are concerned, we find that many of them are sites of local culture with distinctive pottery, clay bangles, terracotta beads, and grinding stones , some of them showing Harappan contact, and comparatively few are full-fledged Mature Harappan sites.

After Partition, the archaeological work on the early historic period in India and Pakistan developed differently. In India, while the colonial administrative structure remained intact, the ASI made a concerted effort to Indianise' the field.

The early historic period was understood as an important chapter in the long, unified history of the Indian subcontinent, and this understanding supported Indian goals of national unity.

In Pakistan, however, the project of nation building was focused more on promoting the rich Islamic archaeological heritage within its borders, and most early historic sites, therefore, were left to the spades of foreign missions.

He returned to Pakistan in to carry out excavations at Charsadda and then joined the UNESCO team concerned with the preservation and conservation of Mohenjo-daro during the s. Saudi Aramco World : 34— Archived from the original on 18 February Retrieved 11 February Mehrgarh Neolithic PDF. Lucknow, India. Archived from the original PDF on 3 March Indus Age: The Beginnings. Philadelphia: Univ. Pennsylvania Press. J World Prehistory. Iranica Antiqua. The Prehistory of the Silk Road.

It seems to be a law in the technology industry that leading companies eventually lose their positions, often quickly and brutally. Nokia's board resisted change, making it impossible for the company to adapt to rapid shifts in the industry. That is because the engineers, designers, regulators, operators, and all of the other skilled people needed for the new energy industry are specialists who have to be trained first or retrained, if they are the ones being laid off in some related industry.

The battle between Apple and law enforcement officials over unlocking a terrorist's smartphone is the culmination of a slow turning of the tables between the technology industry and the United States government. The film industry still functions as a straight, White, boy's club.

The Internet is apparently taking down yet another industry. The Los Angeles times reports that the industry is in the midst of an intense increase in cash flow. The retail industry is getting "reinvented" as we describe in our new book Matchmakers.

The video gaming industry has ballooned in recent years. They're not really well-regulated unless they adhere to some industry standard. This is one industry where it seems the integration of robots will lead to collaboration, not replacement.

This only applies to American space activities, but the hope is that it will help standardize a set of norms in the dawning commercial spaceflight industry throughout the world. Unemployment cannot be brought down rapidly, declared one analysis, because the workforce is "unadaptable and untrained. Yeah, and it really helped me to get into the industry , but I have to say that it's more important to get experience in different types of market research to find out exactly what you're interested in.

According to the author, polluting industries should fight against carbon pollution. And the industry isn't stopping there. Despite recent advancements in 3D food printing, the industry has many challenges to overcome. For Dutch people, Hilversum is all about textile and media industries , and modern architecture. If you want to disturb the car industry , you'd better have a few billion dollars: mom-and-pop carmakers are unlikely to beat the biggest car companies.

Inventors have been trying to make flying cars since the s, according to Robert Mann, an airline industry expert. It is the center of an important industry in the everyday lives of the British people. Many people who live along the coast make a living in fishing industry. The author mentions car industry at the beginning of the passage to introduce a special feature of agriculture.

The beginning of the media industry in Hilversum was marked by the establishment of a radio factory. The design industry has moved away from a fixed offices setup and created more flexible "strategic management environments". The industry cost might be increased. The industry has also taken aim at the product that has appeared as its replacement: reusable shopping bags.

The production of coffee beans is a huge, profitable business, but, unfortunately, full-sun production is taking over the industry and bringing about a lot of damage.

The progress made in car industry. The sustainable success of small farmers, though, won't happen without fundamental changes to the industry. There has been a recent trend in the food service industry toward lower fat content and less salt. They could help promote other industries whether they lie inside or outside arts. They moved in after big success in the textile industry and aided a substantial textile industry in Hilversum.

When the polluting industries argue that we've lost the battle to control carbon pollution and have no choice but to adapt, it's a nonsense designed to make the case for business as usual. Working in such a competitive industry , I've sometimes thought, I can't do this any more. Moreover, average overall margins are higher in wholesale than in retail; wholesale demand from the food service sector is growing quickly as more Europeans eat out more often; and changes in the competitive dynamics of this fragmented industry are at last making it feasible for wholesalers to consolidate.

By offering on-trend items at dirt-cheap prices, Cline argues, these brands have hijacked fashion cycles, shaking an industry long accustomed to a seasonal pace. Bob Liodice, the chief executive of the Association of National Advertisers, says consumers will be worse off if the industry cannot collect information about their preferences. The fashion industry knows it has an inherent problem in focusing on material adornment and idealized body types.

It tells the fashion industry that it must take responsibility for the signal it sends women, especially teenage girls, about the social tape-measure they must use to determine their individual worth. France, which prides itself as the global innovator of fashion, has decided its fashion industry has lost an absolute right to define physical beauty for women.

Even better would be to help elevate notions of beauty beyond the material standards of a particular industry.

L&I is workers' comp, workplace safety, labor and consumer protection, trades licensing, contractor registration and license lookup for public safety in Washington State.

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  7. The Indus Valley Civilisation (IVC) was a Bronze Age civilisation in the northwestern regions of South Asia, lasting from BCE to BCE, and in its mature form from BCE to BCE. Together with ancient Egypt and Mesopotamia, it was one of three early civilisations of the Near East and South Asia, and of the three, the most widespread, its sites spanning an area .

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