Not everyone agreed, exactly. At that time, the private Italian company was experimenting. Otras iniciativas similares del programa incluyen muy pocas mujeres artistas. Este proyecto multimedia y los eventos creados por. This pursuit of creating a worldview that could spark new forms of social relations through industrial design—beyond simply manufacturing a series of products— was part of a more ample modernist vision.
Another artist looking at a similar corporate-led commissioning arts initiative was Edgar Orlaineta. The Eameses were interested in making beautiful, efficient, and simple designs to enjoy and raise awareness of pertinent issues of the time; for them, this solar toy was a way to address their interests in alternative energy. For decades, large and small factories, manufacturing companies. However explored, the aims were far from making a comprehensive exhibition on that subject.
This is to say, too, that much consideration was given to the surge of corporate art commissioning programs—initiated by companies or artists—as well as new forms of institutional critique since the s. While several of the corporate-initiated programs of that decade were creative, they tended to particularly focus on so-called experiments in image making, at least in marketing terms. Then there were other projects, mostly artist-initiated, that were an incisive critique of labor conditions or the regional labor paradoxes resulting from a transnational economy.
This commissioning program was designed to create spaces of dialogue and understanding through art. Whether the program reached those goals is left to question; whether it made visible and palpable socioeconomic and cultural incongruities is evident.
Ainda que tenham sido explorados, nossos objetivos ainda estavam longe de. La APG es un caso ejemplar. No todo el mundo estuvo de acuerdo. China factories, and commissioned projects from local artists. Without a doubt, the curatorial research for Imagination Machines presented challenges beyond concrete ethical debates raised by certain collaborations and the abstract but ever-present factor of time, which was relatively short for establishing a sense of trust and deeper space for experimentation for the new commissions.
Some other artworks were also not lent to Portals, Forecasts and Monotypes due to conservation concerns. We also searched for innovative collaborative projects, whether independently or institutionally initiated, in Africa.
However, most of the projects we found that addressed natural resources and technology were created primarily by European artists.
While several of these were interesting, it was best to leave them aside, for while they may have used local resources, they typically imported technologies. And then there was a simple, interesting fact: many projects were. Some artworks were still in process or simply unreachable—located at their site of creation or in a remote place.
But so many of these instances proved to be, beyond just inspiration, relevant for many different reasons. These were unique collaborations between artists and other specialized and non-specialized communities that expanded the notions of both art and technology, that encapsulated a political and cultural context—singular worldviews so to say—in their development, and that included instances and spaces of production beyond the corporate world or manufacturing industries.
To represent these, a selection of artworks is featured in a devoted space within Portals, Forecasts and Monotypes. This space and its corresponding program are called Ekphrasis, which denotes the verbal representation of visual representation. Os desafios que surgiram eram de diferentes tipos. No entanto, a maioria dos projetos que encontramos que. Otro artista cuya mirada se dirige hacia la iniciativa del arte.
William J. For this, it was crucial to slightly shift the terms of engagement, from educating to learning, from mediating to sharing. While the intent was to create an exhibition, trusting that the phenomenological experience of artworks is.
Therefore, working with artists and selecting proposals or existing artworks was as important as devising ways in which the accrued knowledge stemming from curatorial and artistic process could be publicly shared. The curatorial team for the 9th Bienal was organized with this in mind, and their unusual titles—time, space, ground, and cloud curators— were to indicate this thinking.
Much was collected and learned during the research and planning phases of the biennial, and, as it is in any curatorial project, not all of it made its way into the exhibition. Much is also learned once the exhibition is taking place, as unplanned relations appear between artworks and other perspectives are gained.
Publicly sharing and discussing these experiences, ideas, images, objects and documents, as well as triggering new ones, is one of the purposes of Cloud Formations. This is also a platform in which to learn from other thinkers, examining ongoing research and projects that tackle—in alternative ways, in a variety of circuits, in fields of production far from art—some of the ideas addressed and questions raised in the biennial.
Primarily conceived as an arts pedagogical training program for those working as mediators in the biennial, and a public program series for the curious, Cloud Formations was initiated in May , months.
A main feature of Cloud Formations is its regard to timeliness and site. Beyond the classroom or auditorium, it took participants to explore a variety of resources and processes on-site, from mines to riverbanks to Eolic parks, and to scientifically observe or meditatively contemplate the skies, the sea, and the atmosphere. Learning was to be wholly experiential and sensual, dialogic as well as counter-discursive. As may be inferred from this, several participating artists were integral to Cloud Formations, because of their interest in sharing their research or community involvement and, in most cases, for both these reasons.
Publications were central in the curatorial and pedagogical efforts to share thoughts, findings, and research in progress—and three of them were prepared and released prior to the exhibition opening: The Cloud, an anthology of influential texts; Manual for the Curious, a. Homemade Inventions, a video open call, posted on the Web site, was developed in tandem to this editorial undertaking.
This latter initiative emerged after curatorial debates—critical for the most part— of the ways in which technology was being addressed at the start of the project, namely, in its attention to the so-called advanced and industrially oriented societies. This public call for videos resulted in emphasizing solutions ingeniously created to solve everyday problems. The purpose was to gather material, in video, that made manifest the artistic and technological qualities in the quotidian, and, in so doing, highlight empirical learning and curiosity, not only experimentation after hypothetical thought backed-up by formal institutions, industry, or corporations.
Its sole remaining building, constructed in , has been abandoned for some time and the climate has withered its architecture and accessibility. This island was the proposed space to embark. Para tanto, era crucial mudar ligeiramente os termos de envolvimento, do educar para o aprender, do mediar para o compartilhar.
Muito foi aprendido e reunido durante as fases de pesquisa e. Each session had a theme, and each included a related commissioned essay, which would serve to guide the discussions during the field trips. A la par, the artist Tarek Atoui was invited to create a work that could bring the sense of the island to the exhibition. For his project, a group of youth scouts will make an expedition to the island to register its sound vibrations, which they will transmit through a ham radio band to a public live-sound performance by Atoui in Porto Alegre.
With over seventy new contributions varying from prose to poetry to personal account and fiction provided by the sailors, in addition to the above-mentioned commissioned essays, this online publication is a unique way to imaginatively navigate into Island Sessions.
Two of those essays are republished in this catalog—the ones by Demeuse and Bueno. Visual contributions were created as well. Each field trip included a guest artist invited to capture and share a visual impression of the island, either this specific one or the idea of one.
Their contributions are also published in this catalog. In their own way, Island Sessions and Cloud Formations exist outside of exhibition display conventions without losing sight of the curatorial task to make art and ideas public, to communicate its contexts, and manifest its expressions. To delve further into the empiricism evoked in these programs, as well as into artworks in the biennial exhibition, institutional messages and commissioned artworks were put in motion in other ways.
And for this, peculiar modes of communication were brought in—conveniently and unusually—to the 9th Bienal do Mercosul Porto Alegre.
The inventions of and accesses to communication technology have been, historically, an evidence of civilization. And where to start? With a pictogram, a smoke signal, a hieroglyph, an alphabet? Certainly, the existence and fate of communication technologies is contingent on the cultural contexts which define their efficacy, for example, in its speed and clarity of transmission and reproducibility or, alternatively, in being impenetrable to outsiders.
Digital tools characterize communication today. Information circulates rhizomatically, and more rapidly than ever. News and varying viewpoints, as well as personal responses, are ubiquitous and instant. Personal privacy is in fact corporately privatized in and through these systems. And little does this fact limit the usage of existing tools. The desire to communicate simply supersedes technology, and reshapes it.
It is that very desire which creates a meaningful dialogue between art and technology. Ultimately, art is—across time, geographies, and cultures—the most enduring form of communication. Technology, meanwhile, is based on a given skill or available equipment. Both, however, are inextricably linked, as they fundamentally involve a transformation and articulation of materials and languages. The 9th Bienal do Mercosul Porto Alegre gives particular attention to the anachronisms of communication technology, with the aim of sensually perceiving the ways in which their efficacy was culturally measured.
Far from centering. It approaches them as venues and, as such, as distribution channels to highlight their symbiotic relationship with contemporary art.
Contemporary art has much to offer, and to communicate, and an exhibition display is only one instance where this can happen. The hope was, is, to reflect on the various ways in which art may be created and shared, how it can reach a public, and how a public can access and perceive it, contemplate and ponder its message, take it, leave it, or make it anew. Artists received messages about a commission, thoughts on their work, or invitations via personal telegrams. Comunmente llamada Ilha do.
This typography takes the place of a logo for the project, varying always upon the message it spells, thus progressively disclosing itself over the course of its use.
Mario Garcia Torres, whose visual essays in video or slide format have lately been accompanied by specially composed soundtracks, was invited early in the curatorial process to create a song for the 9th Bienal do Mercosul Porto Alegre. Although the song was intended to be memorable, or catchy so to say, the song needed to be far from a jingle.
Garcia Torres dived into the research material of the Bienal, and naturally brought in more of his own interests to the project. One of his interests was embracing a sense of remoteness, that responding from afar to a situation or place yet to be experienced could and would entail dreaming. He created not one song, but an entire album intended to be a kind of musical anthology rather than a soundtrack to the exhibition. With the exception of these two songs, Garcia Torres wrote the lyrics of the album and each song was arranged and recorded by him with a group of musicians.
The happening took place at the inaugural program of Cloud Formations celebrated earlier in the year—specifically, on May 17, , and coincidently, a date proclaimed by the United Nations as the World Telecommunications and Information Society Day. Along with sharing, these two states motivate criticality in communication, emphasizing experience in learning.
During the exhibition period of the 9th Bienal do Mercosul Porto Alegre, other commissions of this. Longe de se centrar nos artefatos, ela reativa os meios, conectando-se a eles e por meio deles. Os artistas receberam mensagens sobre uma obra comissionada, pensamentos a respeito de suas obras ou convites por.
En paralelo, el artista Tarek Atoui fue invitado. Bacal collaborated with the woman whose voice was used for the Speaking Clock in Brazil to read a poem on the perception of time.
Embracing the idea of communicating in various modalities, and at different pacing, this exhibition catalog includes six special commissions. These are iterations of art projects in print form. The researcher and. Varying significantly from each other—with pictures and writing styles that include visual and narrative essay, fiction, and epistolary form—all six contributions have original content. However, Smithson was one among several artists who had boycotted the exhibition proposal,.
Sua finalidade era comunicar as ideias e sensibilidades propostas pela 9a Bienal, mais que ser uma melodia promocional. Com um toque pop e. Desta vez, usando telepatia. Their resignation was a protest against the increasingly repressive government in Brazil at the time, and what they deemed as the U.
If one wants teamwork he should join the army. Concrete ends tempered utopic ideas. For Kepes, the accelerated transformation of society, entailing urban developments of great scale, would be done most sensibly and intelligently if artists were more directly involved in its planning processes.
Second, they will have to learn to adjust to a community with city planners, architects, social scientists, psychologists, and many others who are working at reshaping the environment. Third, they will have to learn to explore the new technical potentials needed to implement their findings.
The reference to the Bauhaus here is deliberate. The focus on technologies encompassed industry in the widest sense possible, while collaboration implied the interdisciplinary or, in nonacademic terms, a crosspollination of ideas in and of varying communities and fields of thought.
Kepes and his CAVS may be the link between these two moments, at least in this essay. The reason for mentioning them here is to reflect on the contexts in which their ideas emerged, specifically how they innovatively, and hence controversially for some, addressed technology and collaboration in art. These moments are marked by precise political climates: the former ensuing during the Cold War period, increasing state militarization and social repression; the latter following World War I, operating as a hub to consider social.
Tense political contexts like those are certainly experienced differently today on a global scale, though by no means absent. It is June , and as I write the conclusion to this essay, it is impossible to disregard the massive protestos [riots] that have arisen in recent days across Brazil.
Triggered by a price hike in public transportation, these uprisings have brought scrutiny onto public spending for social benefits, especially in contrast to the massive amount being spent to host the World Cup taking place in Brazil next year, We want a better standard of living. This, for its. Se um sujeito quer trabalho em equipe, deve se alistar no. Porto Alegre acontecieron otras dos comisiones de este tipo.
El recipiente de la paloma mensajera era, a su vez, una segunda ave mensajera en tanto era un usuario activo de Twitter al mismo tiempo. Cinco artistas o parejas de artistas participantes en la 9a Bienal. With a largely anthropocentric view of culture, a major driving force of progress is dominating nature. Also implicated in this hierarchical and utilitarian view is a permanent negation or objectification of the nonhuman or of the sacrificable-human.
For reaching sustainability then, much like when embracing entropy, the challenge is to culturally reconsider notions of progress from a controlling approach to a complementary relation, welcoming intersubjectivities rather than championing individuality.
Yet I think it is in the seams between his words where the crux of the matter lies. The underlying question may be this: What is it in, or about, art that contributes to the longstanding discussion of the purposes and uses of technologies—of tools, whether indigenous, rural or modern, created for experiencing this and other worlds? Some international contemporary art biennials, certainly the 9th Bienal.
It bets on inquisitiveness to uproot impasses of common sense; it makes public ideas and works that are not commonly presented in a given place; it brings together diverse publics that seldom convene. This combination of inquiry, visibility, and mobility characterize our times. I trust that the 9th Bienal do Mercosul Porto Alegre is an occasion for this to happen. Its participating artists, thinkers, and cultural producers raise difficult questions.
They make the unseen visible. Their work is moving. They offer the public a variety of ways to contemplate, imagine, and perceive what is overlooked, and to feel and consider anew what has possibly always been there, in front of us, but went unacknowledged. I believe that it is in experiencing these subtleties in the art of our times that more sensible alternatives for collectively envisioning a better world can arise— and become possible.
Kepes e o seu CAVS podem ser o link entre esses dois momentos, pelo menos neste ensaio. There is an intended word sequencing difference between them. Unlike the physical exhibition, where objects are arranged with regard to spatial logic, here I will discuss works based on related themes and subject matter found between various artistic practices and projects. In the exhibition Cielo [Sky] , a drawing installation from this same project, is on display. Curator Sarah Demeuse conducted part of this research process, too.
Archival research was conducted on the archives of the Artists Placement Group at the Tate in the UK, and the exhibition of this initiative at Raven Row in London, in ; the archives of E. This year also marks the start of several other international contemporary art biennials.
De Souza also initiated several conversations with potential partners outside the corporate sector, setting meetings for us with research centers and universities; some of these became partners in Imagination Machines. It is important to note here that many companies were approached, and most declined participation. It is also worthwhile mentioning that when offered only materials rather than expertise and dialogue, the collaboration was not ultimately taken.
A case in point was with a proposal by artist Erika Verzutti to work with a soap company. Over six months were spent in negotiations with a major transnational company in Brazil that produces, among its products, soap; in the end, they declined to participate. Other national companies and smaller soap producers were approached, but when offering just the raw soap and nine tons of it, which the artist estimated she would need in donation, it was clear that without their expertise, their technology and a personal exchange in the process, neither a meaningful collaboration or joint experimental process would ensue, nor would the material be handled properly, given the time and skills at hand.
The exchange varied from what type of companies we should be approaching, and how, to what kind of experiences or projects had been developed in a given place and time. A paper giving an overview and personal account on E. Talvez por ser algo ideologicamente desafiador — que parece demandar um julgamento de valor, um posicionamento.
Mientras que el activismo de Smithson es un acto de resistencia, un posicionamiento con una marcada distancia, Kepes es proactivo y su acercamiento da pie a un trabajo en el que se los cambios se generan desde adentro, institucionalmente hablando. La referencia a la Bauhaus es deliberada.
Buenos Aires: Ediciones de Arte Gaglianone, The art historian Claire Bishop—who has written copiously and critically on participation and collaboration in contemporary art—considers APG and the community arts movements of post Britain as attempts to reconsider the role of the artist in society in the context.
APG presented a short list of artists for the company to select, and a one-month trial period began the collaboration. And even if there were plans for that, it would have been an impossible undertaking with the resources we had at hand, including only fifteen months to organize and publicly present an exhibition.
One of the biggest challenges was tracking down the historic artworks on loan and, after having found these, to determine their conservation status and maintenance demands, the loans or permissions to fabricate, etcetera. This alone took twelve. For a comprehensive archive of projects of this kind, internationally, see: Aleksandra Mir, Corporate Mentality, ed. Coincidently, Sarah Demeuse had taught a university course on Ekphrasis some years back.
The title seemed forecasted from different sides. The explanation of ekphrasis here is taken from William J. Mitchell, reference below. Cambridge: MIT Press, , Neither Mario Garcia Torres nor the musicians and singers whom he worked with in Mexico knew Portuguese, so the lyrics were phonetically translated and interpreted from the original Spanish or. Se, por. English into Portuguese. USA: Verso, , Gabriela Massuh Buenos Aires: Maldulce, , — Accessed on June 30, Um caso ocorrido foi o da proposta da artista Erika Verzutti para trabalhar com uma empresa de sabonetes.
Listen, Here, Now. Nova York: Museum of Modern Art, , pp. Romero Brest, Jorge. Londres e Nova York: Verso, Sin embargo, son preguntas que han informado el desarrollo del proyecto. Ellos hacen visible lo invisible. Su trabajo es conmovedor. Um arquivo abrangente de projetos internacionais desse tipo pode ser encontrado em: Mir, Aleksandra.
Corporate Mentality. Kelsey, John ed. Nova York e Berlim: Sternberg Press, Coincidentemente, Sarah Demeuse havia ministrado um curso na universidade sobre Ekphrasis alguns anos antes. Mitchell, William J. In: Picture Theory. Chicago e Londres: University of Chicago Press, , pp. Smithson, Robert. In: Flam, Jack ed. Robert Smithson: The Collected Writings. Nueva York: Museum of Modern Art, , 78— In: Bauhaus: Crucible of Modernism. Nova York: Fromm International, , pp.
In: Occupy! EUA: Verso, , p. In: Massuh, Gabriela ed. Buenos Aires: Maldulce, , pp. En algunos documentos, Ocean Trading and Transport, Ltd. Para consultar un archivo integral de este tipo de proyectos a nivel internacional, ver: Aleksandra Mir, Corporate Mentality, John Kelsey ed.
Mitchell, referencia incluida abajo. Phaidon Limited Press, EU: Verso, , Buenos Aires: Maldulce, , — During our visit to one of those archives in Los Angeles, we also visited the completely inspirational Museum of Jurassic Technology. O que foi o mais interessante ao ter acesso aos documentos? Enquanto eu voava de Belo Horizonte para Los Angeles, pensava nos arquivos que encontraria ou na promessa atraente. Creo que este elemento es fundamental y visible en los distintos archivos a los que tuvimos acceso, sin importar la iniciativa particular.
Mientras volaba de Belo Horizonte hacia Los Angeles pensaba en los archivos. What was the most interesting aspect about accessing those documents? Sensibility and openness both in a world that is highly professionalized in a particular subject and in one that seeks to penetrate that alien space have to find a way of creating a dialogue of common interest that triggers an interest in the other so that they can develop mutually.
I think that is the fundamental and visible element in the different archives we looked at, without emphasizing any one in particular. While I was flying from Belo Horizonte on the way to Los Angeles, I thought about the archives I would find or the alluring promise of scrutinizing the complete or more complete documentation of the two key enterprises we would be developing for the 9th Bienal—Art and Technology, and Experiments in Art and Technology. The boxes were delivered.
Gran parte de los artistas que fueron invitados a desarrollar proyectos, no los han podido realizar. Estos son aspectos que no debemos eludir, pero asumirlos en el proceso generosamente, tal vez tenerlos como instrumentos para orientarnos.
Por eso es fundamental compartir los contenidos de distintas maneras. Absortos ante el material que revisamos en distintas instituciones o nos compartieron algunos individuos, desde cartas personales y documentos. We were interested at that time in some specific art projects, but we particularly wanted a chance to get an overall feeling of what that Art and Technology project might have involved.
Despite what we had always known about the limitation of any records, knowing about the flood made that clearer, and deemed the nonevident absence and partiality part of the conditions of the research. Apart from the flood, I was struck by something else about that archive: failure. Many of the listed artists invited to submit projects failed to do so. Only a few among those who established partnerships with industry or business and delivered proposals actually managed to achieve the idea and display the result.
And those, who are the ones highlighted in the box of documents, justified the other frustrated attempts at dialogue, the intermittent gaps in the dialogue between technical issues and creativity, the invariable lack of adaptability of the desire to create and all the impossibility of materializing the projects left behind. Instead of circumventing those aspects, we should generously accept them into the process, and perhaps use them as navigation instruments.
Identifying them from the outset amongst the archives of historical projects was very important. What is the position of information in the 9th Bienal do Mercosul Porto Alegre? The curatorial project allows this to unfold naturally, considering the most suitable arrangement for each case. Our involvement in material reviewed in different institutions or shared with particular individuals— from personal letters and administrative documents to complex discussions about project development—led us to think that these documents could have a more direct and immediate presence in rooms.
Para a iniciativa do E. Para la iniciativa de E. Creo que el glosario es. In other platforms of the curatorial project we also produced a focused selection of documents shared through personal or even perhaps anecdotal interpretation and translation. During the research process we also found some official documents containing unlikely information, which demonstrated a need to generate or create our own versions of certain stories, leaving the door open for an infinite number of possible viewpoints.
For the E. On the other hand, the Artist Placement Group—founded in as an organization focused on facilitating the work of artists inside public or private industries without the need to create end products as works but instead concentrating on the experience itself—seemed to have numerous widely disseminated archives.
One of the many solutions we found for displaying at the 9th Bienal the historical and contemporary projects that might really benefit from being seen in their physical form was to use the Memorial do Rio Grande do Sul auditorium space for the Ekphrasis program.
I think the glossary is more than useful at this stage when ideas are about to become concrete projects of artists, and that misunderstandings can be fatal for the proper development of the curatorship. I thought we had to be clear and objective as much as possible with companies, with the biennial board, with artists, with the press, and especially with the audience, about what we are saying and not about what we do not mean.
Lo mismo sucede con el reconocimiento de que algunas de las. Or what utopias are out there? What is unknown? Perhaps certain incongruences were even fruitful in the process of this project and since we have been aware of all of this, it is actually played out clearly in the exhibition and its platforms.
It was the same with acknowledging the fact that some of the ideas needed to be communicated in very particular ways, and so that was taken into account too. T archives at the Getty.
This was part of a US government effort to set up a television system in the country. The first area of work was the rural town of Ananda, where the women were involved in buffalo farming. The idea was to create an educational television program addressed to them in which issues like birth control and public health could be addressed through veterinary programs focused on livestock. Following implementation of that stage linked to the television program, a group of nine American artists—including Trisha Brown, Robert Breer, Robert Whitman—was invited by E.
Satellite Television Project, and financial assistance from the World Bank. A similar project was based in Guatemala and El Salvador, aimed at developing national culture programs for television. Those artists somehow managed through creative experience to dilute the official presence of the US State.
While carrying out the research, it was important to map various names and parallel projects running alongside the E. So if we are always involved in a power system and always working to implement a particular vision of the future, of progress, even utopia, what is our project today?
What is the meaning of the idea of progress we are sharing that guides us into the future? Coming into contact with that kind of archive, my question was how to update that experience for today.
How can one identify and plan the elements of macro and micropolitics? Beyond this critical reflection on the past, I think that this experience can lead to reflection and practice that examines without inquisition the present and the future related to the union between art and industry, art and technology, art and development, and art and science. Under the large umbrella of the program Imagination Machines at the 9th Bienal do Mercosul Porto Alegre, six artists were invited to develop projects in collaboration with companies, research centers, and Brazilian institutions willing to support creative processes with their technological and intellectual capital.
So the almost fifty years separating both experiments only serve to intensify the process of transforming notions of economic advance, scientific progress, and technological development that have been consolidated during the modern period. If this kind of collaboration was originally to some extent associated with. Having overcome the modernist ideal which identified the present time as a platform for progress, rejecting tradition and making a tabula rasa of the preceding experiences of mankind, what followed the Cold War, the space race, and the information era was a kind of intellectual reaction which critically repositioned contemporary thinking as a counterforce to any all-encompassing future project.
The end of the industrial era, the dissolution of the Soviet bloc, and growing environmental awareness were determining factors in this process. The highly diverse complex of experiences occurring during the Imagination Machines program stems precisely from this substantial change in our relationship with technology, information, and the world of work.
A consecuencia de esto, el periplo por. It is worth recalling the ill-fated efforts at seeking partnerships with soap factories, following initial interest from one of the artists, which led to the realization that the collaboration model defined in advance was unsuitable as a strategy for approaching corporations—or rather, they needed to have previously declared an interest in the commissions program.
Various other companies were contacted to no avail, many of which were willing only to donate products or raw material, demonstrating a reluctance to engage in a mutually beneficial experience through exchange of knowledge, know-how, and technology. Nonetheless, it is quite true that the prospect of failure in the course of these enterprises was always lurking over the horizon, since it is a vital element in each and every experimental process.
The arc of collaborations involved in the Imagination Machines project is therefore highly representative of the political-cultural scenario and of the various stages of the production chain in Brazil, be it raw materials, consumer goods, or knowledge. As a result, the visits to the institutions and companies that welcomed us throughout and —collecting data, helping to reshape ideas, investing time and money, and providing both human and material resources— revealed a world where the most radical dichotomies live side by side, unexpected layers of time overlapping each other to define a horizon that is as politically nebulous as it is aesthetically and philosophically fruitful.
The architecture of the Gerdau mining fields, whose shapes drawn by diggers evoke the structure of a Greek theater, allied to the superhuman scale of the heaviest known industry i.
In a pine forest near the Rio Grande do Sul coast in southern Brazil, sap extraction is carried out with such dexterity and agility that. The naval hub of the huge stateowned industry Petrobras, responsible for breaking the cycle of decay in Rio Grande an historic city in the south of Brazil , creating thousands of direct and indirect jobs for local men and women, produces just one oil rig per year, with an extraction capacity for the black gold that reaches impressive figures.
These industrial structures on a scale as unimaginable as Leviathan, come with tennis courts, games rooms, soccer fields, or cinemas—efforts to ease the harsh isolation experienced by workers on the high seas for fifteenday periods, in a compulsory regime systematically alternating between land and sea.
Faoro, Raymundo. Rio de Janeiro: Editora Globo, The same institution is erecting a film studio on the site of a former seminary, whose monumental organ served as a scenic element for the fictional lecture by the queer philosopher Beatriz Preciado, in a film about sex change, political instability, and aesthetic autonomy.
In turn, the occupation of the moon devised by Bik Van der Pol is based on the participatory budget, practice of direct-democracy the radicality of which serves as inspiration for transforming the public machine into a genuine imagination machine, using administrative bureaucracy as a utopian mechanism at the service of the community. These are a few impressions gleaned during the development of Imagination Machines, flashes of a revealing experience, mental notes of a process that will not end with this Bienal and will surely go on producing effects on the imagination of artists, the audience, curators, institutions and their staff, questioning dogmas and overturning beliefs, but above all stimulating the curiosity of those looking at the constantly changing world, on a level above, along, and below the social.
Faoro sets the roots of Brazilian corruption and bureaucracy in the colonial period, in a country that to this day makes no distinction between the public and private spheres. However, the rest of civil society neither supports nor participates actively in these demonstrations, i. Civil society does not give due importance to those claims, because it sees them as claims from that particular class, and therefore it feels released from the obligation to participate actively. I have been following the demonstrations closely and I have never seen so many people on the street.
I have never seen so many people experiencing and understanding, at the same time, what education and citizenship actually are. They might even not perceive that instantly, but that is indeed education. Arguing about it is education. Questioning it is education. As for the most pressing question regarding education, from the point of view of teachers, it is the category valuation.
And when I say valuation, I mean: first of all, respect for the minimum wage approved by the National Congress, and, second, better wages—this fight is ageless the wages of teachers who work primarily in public schools are very low — and better working conditions. At the same time, among the questions posed by other groups of civil society, i. Me da mucho gusto intercambiar contigo estas palabras. Sean empleados o jefes; padres de familia,. I am happy to have the chance to correspond in this way.
Let me ask you, first of all, what issues in education are currently most urgent in Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. What kinds of questions are discussed—in the media, in government, among teachers—about the educational system? I ask this because the Bienal do Mercosul is an institution of informal education that works, in one way or another, to supplement formal schooling; so the conditions of formal schooling are our primary context.
But more immediately I am interested to hear whether educational concerns are any part of the current protests about public services that are taking place in Brazil.
In the recent months of intense protests in Brazil, there has been much discussion about what kind of demonstration this is: Does it have to do with specific classes or the civil society as a whole? A teacher, for instance, is not someone isolated. A teacher is perhaps one of the main agents in the context of a society. From his or her classroom, there will emerge many citizens who invariably will be part of a political, economic, and social system already established.
They will be employees or employers, parents, consumers, opinion makers, customers, patients, managers, and even teachers. Recuerdo que hablabas, en otro ejemplo, sobre el tiempo como un problema para los maestros en Brasil. These issues have grown like a snowball and are triggering a series of other movements of society geared towards organizing in assemblies held on the streets to discuss and define collective agendas, and demand that the public budget be directed to other services, for example.
I remember you talking, last year, about low pay for teachers as an issue in Brazil, and I said it was no less so in the United States I said you should watch the film American Teacher, produced by The Teacher Salary Project. But I am interested in when the issue is not about money, or when a money issue expresses something else, perhaps something more abstract or fundamental. I would argue, for example, that the fundamental issue in the US is one of competition—between students, between teachers, between schools, and ultimately between nations in terms of economic performance.
I remember you talking, for another example, about time as a problem for teachers in Brazil. If we start to think about time and space as educational problems, we might already be saying something about why the pedagogical program of the 9th Bienal do Mercosul Porto Alegre has evolved in the way that it has. Not only in Brazil, but with great strength here, children are educated to be successful whatever that means.
Unfortunately, in Brazil, for some time now, education has to be measured by a productivity scale guided by the visibility of what is produced. This is the logic imposed by the Ministry of Education and federal programs to graduate programs and, in a more veiled way, it seems to be addressed to the basic education as well. According to Bruner, a great part of the learning process takes place only owing to the fun.
The logic of education of nowadays crushes time and obviously sets a rhythm that betrays itself from beginning to end. Um ou topos, utopia. Cinco unidades de dez minutos? Una de ellas tiene que ver con la equidad. El problema de la. For years, much has been discussed about methods of teaching and learning processes. There is still debate about content and behavior. However, little is said about the form, i. Educational theories are constantly imported and revised, but the architecture of schools and time allocated to classes in Brazil, in practice, follow the same educational logic of a hundred years ago, and there seems to be not much discussion about them.
I tend to believe that there is no innovative pedagogy that will stand the school architecture of most Brazilian schools. Foucault enjoys high esteem here—the difference between them and the architecture of many prisons is virtually nil. It learned to work considering education something out of reach, the function of others. Ou topos, Utopia. As regards the issue of time, in the same manner, no pedagogy can survive as a living, pleasurable, and freeing process by conditioning learning to periods of fifty minutes.
What are fifty minutes? Five units of ten minutes? Three thousand seconds? Time spent in an art class is one and in a physical education class is another.
The time employed to read a text is one and that employed to see an image is another. The time of a biology class in a closed room is completely different from the same class in a garden. One is about equality. Equality, the problem of inequality, the idea that inequality is a problem—this is central to this unexpected new era of protests.
It goes beyond economic equality. In my city, people have taken to the streets in recent days too, but it is to celebrate marriage equality, following two decisions by the Supreme Court of the United States. So how should we understand equality in education? The second thing is about visibility. One of the reasons why issues to do with public parks or urban public space, generally , as in Turkey, and public transport can mobilize people, and for good reasons, is that these things are so visible, and embody so visibly what we seek to hold in common.
Education is much less visible. Schools are turned inward on themselves. It is a big question: How can. Eu percebo o ceticismo, a partir de muitas perspectivas, sobre a bienal como uma forma. As cidades tornaram-se paisagens do evento cultural, empresarial, esportivo etc. Isso pode nos levar a pensar coisas diferentes sobre como a bienal habita uma cidade, como ela permanece em um.
Este es su lugar. Hay muchos ejemplos en el contexto del arte que pudieran representar esta realidad pero quiero hablar del caso Colombia. Put the two together: how can equality in education be seen as a public good?
How can we find some language, and some images, to represent equality in education now that education has become so much about individual achievement? There might be a role for art cultural institutions in this, whether museums or biennials.
Such institutions are certainly visible, and public-facing; they are perhaps the most spectacularly visible sites of informal education. What can we do, in service of educational equality, with that visibility? On the other hand, I believe that education is and should be invisible.
That is its place. Perhaps art is the crux of it all, because it has the power to address education without apparently being it. From an intentional urban quasi-chaos, he managed to address social and educational issues that were historically complex. It worked, to some extent. People learned when they began to see themselves as a significant part of a larger and collective context.
Otherwise, I would not be in the Bienal. It is only recently that I have been invited to think about what a biennial can be, specifically as an educational platform. I hear skepticism from many perspectives, about the biennial as a form. Sometimes this has to do with how biennials promote an economics of the event. Cities have become landscapes of the event cultural, corporate, sporting, etc. Even people who are not so skeptical of biennials can seem exhausted by them.
For me, I have a sense that is not based on much experience that this exhaustion shading back into skepticism might allow for a reconsideration of what biennials are. It can lead us to think different things about how a biennial dwells in a city, how it abides in a place, not for a number of weeks and months, but over years. The Bienal do Mercosul already has something of this ongoing, longer-term identity—and, more than anyone, it has been your work that has created it.
It struck me very much how, at the beginning of the process to create this ninth edition, so much was already in place: structures, a culture, an active legacy, a set of expectations. The Bienal do Mercosul seems already to be less a series of events and more like a single, continuous entity that pulses through the city, through the region rather, every two. Ou uma sala de aula sem sala, para usar a sua frase. E sobre como foi Las Vegas, em , um professor?
O extremo, nesse sentido, pode ser o movimento Forest School. Sentindo-se constrangido pela sala de aula? La Bienal do Mercosul parece configurarse —no como una secuencia de eventos— sino como una identidad individual,. O bien, como una escuela sin aulas —para retomar tu frase. Has hablado de la manera en que la arquitectura de la escuela determina la experiencia educativa.
Sabemos bien que desde hace un. Something of this ongoing character is being proposed, right now, for example, by those who are rethinking the biennials of Santa Fe and Liverpool. If a biennial is something supported by a city, what is it to think of a city, as a whole, as a space of learning, or even as an educator? Or a classroom without rooms, to use your phrase. Here is a whimsical thought that has been with me for a while. And how was Las Vegas, in , a teacher?
And is there a difference between its pedagogy and its curriculum? Can we think of the built environment of Las Vegas as its curriculum, and its social landscape as its pedagogy?
You talked about how school architecture disciplines educational experience. We know that for a hundred years or more, progressive educators have sought to pursue educational ends by architectural means. If there are affinities between education and architecture, there are equally affinities between deschooling or unschooling and anarchitecture. At the extreme, in this direction, might be the Forest Schools. Feeling constrained by the classroom?
Go outside! There is some truth in this intertwining of educational and spatial planning. You only have to look at how the layout of classrooms has changed in the last century from fixed rows of seating to collaborative islands, for example. I have some reservations, though, about how freedom is interpreted as the absence of constraint. There is nothing free about the space of cities, but their constraints and opportunities may be more expansive and multifaceted than those of the classroom.
Certainly, our pedagogical program for this 9th Bienal, Cloud Formations, is an experiment with this larger landscape of the city, and beyond. And what kind of educator is Porto Alegre? Also, one other thing in response to something you wrote earlier. I hear you asserting the importance of both pleasure and equality. Do you think these values are in tension at all?
I would choose equality over pleasure any time. The worst thing that you can say about an education system is not that it is boring, but that it is unjust. This might be too large an issue to address here. Eu escolheria a igualdade sobre o prazer a qualquer momento. Isso pode ser um problema muito grande para abordarmos aqui. Te escucho afirmando la importancia del placer tanto como la equidad. Lo peor que se puede decir de un sistema educativo —no es que sea aburrido— sino que sea injusto.
Vegas has been a watershed for you. And this per se is very important. But, nowadays, I see them as part of an endless process which takes place. Therefore I cannot separate the different editions, especially in terms of its pedagogical proposals. In this sense, we can not speak of different biennials, but one that, in the worst case scenario, revises itself every two years, its inconspicuous permanence being, in fact, what sustains it and gives it breath.
In order to think the educational issue in the 9th Bienal, I tried to focus on the more experimental beginnings. Y esto es muy importante, por supuesto. Pedagogy seems to be that to me, not a metric, a proposal, but an organic process which walks the walk. If we return to the beginning of our conversation, in which we spoke of the demonstrations which are taking place in Brazil and across the globe, this will become even more evident.
On Cloud Formations, the two initial steps towards that were: firstly, to tear down the physical walls of the school, or the educational environment of the Bienal, two marks for behavior and perception , trying to look in the direction they do not always look to, making the actions and activities happen within the body of the city, in socialization spaces such as streets, squares, subway stations, public buildings; spaces unrelated to art or education, but to perspectives related to the relationship of man with nature, the public sphere, energy production, and the idea of the common good such as water treatment stations, coal mines, wind farms, plantations, scientific and experimental laboratories, forests, power plants, taking place.
I believe that what we could aim is not for Porto Alegre to be this or that educator, but for it to perceive itself as such. It seems to me that this is not the case of choosing one over the other, but of understanding one as an extension of the other.
And that will always depend on what you mean by equality and pleasure. In Brazil, a boring class is never just a boring class—it is a mismatch, a disconnection of speeches and narratives , and these discourses are never just plain linguistic ones. But speaking of education as encounter and equality, I would like to hear what are your thoughts on the closing symposium of the 9th Bienal and what are your expectations and forecasts for after it.
What should come after it? What is the meaning of the project of permanence in the case of an art biennial? Should the pedagogical curatorship continue, or have we reached a. O que deve vir depois? Pensar e falar tornou-se algo profissionalizado. Saiba, caiba. Judai- co. Tira dos vefhes em aia, Aiea. Tira da mef- ma. Tira da mefma. Tira da mefi ma. Amainada, aplaiaa-a. Aplaine, amaine. Catraio, balaio, faio. ICira dos imfmos. Taipa n.
Tira dos em ai. Gaita, firigaita. Aite Bonifraitefc vai-te. Traja, ultraja, esfarraja. Tira das verbos em aja. Tira dos mef. Tira dos mef- - mos. AL Cryftal. Provincial, coftal.
General, faval,. CardeaL bical, ravetimh edvral. Principal, f. Tojal Funchal. Carnal, medicinal, igual, fatal, doutrinal, auftral. Papal, dia- metral, campa. Reitoral, tranfver- fal. Occidental, biennal. Tira dos verbos' em ala. Tira dos mef- mos. Realce, n. Tira das mepms. TJna dos Twfm mos. Batalha, n. VerboSn iXrabalhflL debmbaraiha. Tira dos mef-. Talhe n. Tira dos verbos em aiba. Tira dos mef- -mos.
Tira dos me finos. Tira dosmef- mos. Palmo, pfalmo. Tira dosmefmos. Paire, galre. Malta, efmalta. Tira dos verbas em alta.
Exaltou, 6cc. Tira dos vuf" mos. Tira refalva. Alfama, camma. Tira dos mfff mos. Defcamba-0 ,. Tira dos verbos em ama. Fifbaes triffyllabos. Tira dos meffnos. Anca, Branca, f. Veja-fe anfa. Anca a. Tira dos verbos em anca , e w- ja-fe anfaa. Tira dos wr- bos em anca. Romance, alcance, n. Tira dos mefmos , e veja-fe anfea.
Cancro, bichancro. Tira dos ajeSlivos em ando. Tira dos mejmos. Maade-o, Scc. Tira dos mef" mos. Apanha-o, SccTiffa dos mefmhs. Tira dosnuf" mos. Tira dos verbos em anha. Tira das meftnos. Ihrr- cania. Fa- nio. Laranja, toranja, franja, fanja. Tira dos verbos Anjao. Tira dos verbos em anja. Tira dos tnefmos. Marrano, mi- gano. Thea- no. Profano, lhano, mundano, humano. Af- turiano. Sevi- lhano. Aria- no. Tofcanot Pia- montano. Tira dos verbos em ana.
Palanque, tanque, eftanque. Tira dos verbos em anca. Fija-fe anca. Tira dos mefmos , e vejafe ancea. Infanta, giganta, planta, n. Canta, planta, encan- ta, levanta, quebranta, tranfplanta. Tira das mefmos. Almirante, commandante. Ajudante, eftipulante. Infante, reprefencantei. Thoante; Abante. Aftyda- mante. Tira dos verbos em antu. Veja-fe ancbaa. Veja-fe ancbe. Ve- ja-fe ancbea. Ve- ja-fe ancho.
Tira dos verbos em aa. Diccioif Amo ao pao. Pala o. Amphi- rao. Me- Belao. Nico- via o.. Ageii- iao. Tira dos mejinas. Tira dos mej- mos. V , Apta. Tira dos mefifios. Mentecapta, apta. Adapte, apte. Achaque, baque, chaque. Tira dos verhs em aca. Tira dos mefmqs.
Alguidar, cucar. Thamar- Balthazar. Gafparl Salmanazar. Gi- braltar. Parca, marca; n. Ate ao. Tira das mtfmos. Disfarce, n. Veja-fe arfe. Buarcos, parco, emharcow j. Guarda, p. Verbos: ' Aguarda, guarda, arda. Alarde: tarde.
D, Leonardo. X Jr4oa. Dares e tottiares. Tira dos linefmos. Tifa dos mef- f mos. Jfeitaria ufurario. Her- sna. Defarmo o, armbo.
Encarna-a, defcarna-a. Carne, cucarne. Saro-a, Scc. Embarque, n. Navarra, eaicatr ra. Tira das fontes. Feja-fe az-fe. Tira dos verbos em afca. TifaihT Afta.
Afpa- iia. Diaprafiov AtftamifiiO. Das- he. Veja-fe azo. Afpeo, Rafpe-o. Mafque , occ. Tira dos verbos em affa , e vejafe ace. Abafta-a ,'. A- cafto. Tira dos -. Tira dos mef-- Ate.
Debate, n. VolatiL aquatih faicati. DonatiX, p. Battc, Torquato,. Tira dos vet'- hos em ata. Alcatra, ctilatf a. Fratid9 applande. Aula, KvAU Paula. I5ri DrccioKxiio Mu 'Auftig. Trave, m nave, ave. Hira dos verbos em ava. IV- ra dos mefmos. TV- ra da fonte- em ar , e dos confoantes em avel. AveL Condeftavel. Da- lVo. Palavra, lavra. Tira dos. Tira iks tneftnos. Tira dos -mefmot.
Tira das mejmos. Veja-fe acha. Praxe, Syntaxe. Primaz, galumaz. Tira dos mefirns. Tira de alguns verbos em aZy e veja-fe afce. Rhea; Achea. Caleb, Zeb. Phefaol Cortbo. Mancebo, jfebob gebo. Tira alas Ditkos. Crebra, n. ZV- ra dos mtfmos. Tira dot- mefmos. TkVtf Ax. Het vecio. Tira dos verios Ecoa. Xa- fcd. Sedai, alameda, vereda. Theaine- - des- mede. Tira dos verbos em Edo. Enredo, medo. Ofie- -do.
Sanefa, borrefa. S' Ego. Negra, verdincgra. Montalegre, ale- gre, n. Tira dos mef- , mos. I7f topeia.. Cryr Xeida. Tira dos ver hs em eia. Manteiga, teiga. Veja-fe eije. Tira dos ntef- mos. Tirados mefmos. Tira dos verbos em eija. Queijo, beijo. V Bih. Tdmci iho. Tira das mtfmas. TiiccxDrrmrnoSy -fcd. Tira dos verbas em eia. Premeio- o. Subjiantivos dijfyllabos. SubjiantinxBS triffyllabos. Jboir- deirav 'cadeira, hefpeira.
Bombardeira, janeleira. Queira, requeira, apeira. Subftantivos triffyilabos. Bom- beiro, aceiro. Arteiro, chocalheiro.
Tira dos verbos em em. Verbos Endireita, peita, fufpeita. Sujeito', f. Desfeito, feito, imperfeito. Tira dos verbos em eita , e da fonte em ar. Tira dos 'Verbos em eita. Et too. Enfeixa, re- leixa. Queixo, n. Tira dos verbos em eixa. Peleja, n. De- feJ3. IpJ ja. Veja-fe ege. Tira dos verbos em eje.
Bacha- rel, annel. Coronel, raof- catei, fardel. JcC- rhael. Pe- nhafiel. Zoh robabel. I9f Bla. Camela, eftrela. Tira da fonte em er. TVrif dos mefmos. Meiga, acciga. Belga, fapelga. Velha, revelha. Def- abelha, engolpelha. Vejho- revelho4 velho-relho. Eito, Bdelio. Elio, Gelio. AutqHck Dct lio. Barcel- los. Tirados verbos em JElo. Zelo, duelo, regelo, napello. Tira dafonie em er. Tira dos verbos em ela. Bobe- mo. Ti- ra da fonte em or. Temo-a , 5cc.
Tira dos verbos. EmpoQi Arempo-o. Tira dos verbos tm em , e vya-fe ente. Avi- -ccna. Polixena, Ravena. Bo- lena. Catnena, Lucena. Bar- bacena, Verderena. Tira los verbot om ena. Avenca, penca, moquenca. TV- ra dos mefmos , e veja-fe enfao. Pertence, recompenfe. Encha, preencha. Enche, preenche. Encho, preencho. Pia- cencia. Innocen- cio. Vivenda, contenda, n.
Tira dos adjeSlivas em endo. Defarten- da. Tira dos ver- bos em enda. Tira dos me f mos. Remendo, n. Tira dos mqfmos. Podengo, atoengo. Defengo-a, Ax. TirA dosmeJ ms. Penha, fenha. Tira dos mtfmox. Tira dos fuefmos. Empenho, n; dcfempenho. Suftenho-a, Scc. EG- feno. Suf- feno. Sarrace- no. Conimbricenfe, Eborenfe. Creten- fe. Athenienfe; Salmanticenfe. Oftien- fe. Hif- palenfe. Am- bracienfe.
Camaldulen- fe. Interamnen- fe. Carrhagi- nenfe. Phocen- fe. Prefi- dente, recurrente. Superintendente, penitente, requeren- te. Tenente, agoardente. Forma' tu outros Jimilhantes. Cle- raenre.
AdjeHi-' vos. Mente, lence. Tira dos verbos effk ents , e em em. Tira dos mefmoj. Virulento, febento. Concentra, reconcentra. Ventre, deventre. Entro Coentro, centro, dentro, con- centro, reconcentro, eAtro. Eu- riftheo. Thefea Pro- metheo. Cephedu t irceo. Tira dos rtuff- mos. Chanceler, aluguer, mefisr. Veja-fe- effia. Tira da mfifima. Dizecifiio: SM. Tira da tmfma. Confterne-o, Scc. Clero, terolero. Af- fuero. Serpe, herpe. Tifta dos mefmos.
Sff a. Inerte, diverte, adverte. Enerva, obferva. Ferve-a rcferve-a. Servo, confervo. Tira dos verbas emervd. Nervo, fobrcncrvo. Crefcff; recrefce. Veja-fe ezio. Feja-fe exibe. Refina, lefma. Vcf-me, cccs-mc. Vifcondef- ' ft. In vefte. Tira da fonte em er y e veja-fe ezte. Protefto- n. Almagef- to.
Indi- gefto. Tira dos verbos em ejia. Clytem- neftra. EJlreo: Adeftre-o. Poeta, fetta. Cometa, forreta, peta. Topete, grumete, motete. Cu- retes. Forma tu outros fimijhantes. Punhe- te. Ad- meto. Be- to. Comple- to, difcreco. Tira dos verbos em et a. Acquieto-a, Scc. Uretra', Metra. Tira dos verbos em etra. Zeleuco, Seleuco. EveL Cazevel.
Suevo, coevo, relevo , Scc. Pretexta, fexta. Texto, pretexto, contexto, fer- to. Marquez, folidez. Lco- nez. Carthagifiez, Francez.
HoI- landez. Braveza, alteza, camoeza. Sub- prioreza. Te- reza. Eze4 Treze. Tira dos mej- Pios. Veja-fe ejia. Tira dos mefmos , e -veja-fe efmo. Tira dos ver- bos em eza. Subf- tantivos quadrijjyllabos. Secretaria, topographia. Ale- xandria. Mar thias. Asa- ria. Ibia, ,Tibia. Lyl aj. Ludibrio, exijuilibrio, Xbra. Vibro, equilibro, Ibroa. Barrica, bonica. Tjrrj dos ,,0iefmos. Apar ricio. Abanico, penico, bolfico. Cai- co. Tira das verbos em ica.
Tipa das 'WHos efHtfa. Tira dos meffmf. Perfi jlji?. Gemido, fuftenido. H Cabido, balido, brazido. Cupido, Lydo.
A- trevido. Convido, tenho lido. Tira dos verbos em ida , e das meftnas fontes. Tira dos mejmos lugares. Tira dos mefmos lugares. Tira dos verbos em ia. Alcatifa, n. Tira dos verbos -em tf a.
Almoxarife, arrife. Tira dos verbos em ifa. Tira dos mefmor. Tira dos verbos em iftf. Borrifo-a , A:c. Chifre, efpcnifre. Tira dos mejvtos. Formiga, liga. Tira dos mepnws. Veja'' te ije. Vertigem, fuligem, origem, im- pigem. Veja-fe ijeo. Ef- fygio, Jgma. Paradigma, enigma, figrtia. S ii Jgneo. Tira dos verbos em igna. Tira dos me mos. Abrigo, n. Ly- RO. Tira dos ver-' bos em iga. Tigre, tranfmigre. Botija, cornija, artemjja.
Alija, afflija. Montijo, rijo. Ih Buril, perfil, abril, trigo anafil, anil. A- daiL Gil. Sando- mil- Eftoril. Ver- bos.
Ventila, reiiia. Ruf- filha. Trilha, lajibir. Tira dos verbos em ilba. Tirados tnefmos. Tira dos mef' mos. Tira dos verbos em ilha. Tira dos meftnos. Pom- pilio. Grilo, mamilo, aquilo, gorgomi- lo, chylo. Ca- milo. Chilra, efpilra. Bilro, esbilro.
Silva, madrefilva. Latim, jenolim, talim. Abe- xim, MiramoUm. Tarimba, de rebimba. Cachimbe, rebimbe. Vime, alquime. Tira dos verbos em ima. ImpaO' Chimpa-o. Cortina, bolina, n. Ca- bellina.
Conftan- tina. Contamina, atina, de- termina, perigrina. Tira dos mefnws. Brinde, n. Tira dos verbos eminday e em im. Tira dos verbos em inda yf da fonte em ir. I Ifidoo. Tangui- 1 -neo. Reguinga, vinga, pin- ga, extinga, ginga, fyringa. Veja-fe inje. Domingo, pingo. Carapinha, bainha, andorinha. Tardinha, roupinha. Forma tu outros dimuu- tivos. Redinha, p. Caminha, n. Bar- quinha, p. Meiiii ho. Entfe Douro e Minho. Tira dos verbos em inba. Tira dos verbos em inja. Tira dos me f- mos.
Rab- bino. Balbi- no. Ar- gentino. Co- rino. Antoni'- no. Cif- alpino.Ai cachopa se queres ser bonita Arrebita, arrebita, arrebita.. Casei com a Gabriela por ela ter muita guita Agora a minha espinhela Arrebita, arrebita, arrebita. Ai cachopa se queres ser bonita Arrebita, arrebita, arrebita. Mas que mulher ciumenta No homem não se acredita É de raça barulhenta Arrebita, arrebita, arrebita. Ai cachopa se queres ser bonita Arrebita, arrebita, arrrebita.